(1) General requirements for environmentally friendly metal parts cleaning agents
The first is that the cleaning equipment and the parts to be cleaned are not corroded, and the cleaning process does not produce residues, including insolubles, dirt, and coatings that are not conducive to subsequent processing. The next step is that the cleaning efficiency is high and the cleaning is thorough enough. Finally, it requires low cost, meets environmental protection requirements, is harmless to the human body, and has a relatively mild odor.
In the metal processing industry, as people's requirements for component performance and processing efficiency are getting higher and higher, cleaning agents are no longer pure decontamination, but are given more requirements. According to the characteristics of the metal material, it is required that the cleaning agent used can effectively decontaminate, and also needs to have an anti-rust effect on the surface of the metal component, and enhance the corrosion resistance of the product, etc., which is added to the cleaning agent. The agent puts forward higher requirements.
(2) Classification of cleaning equipment and requirements for cleaning agents
Currently used metal cleaning equipment includes immersion cleaning equipment, spray cleaning equipment, high pressure spray cleaning equipment and ultrasonic cleaning equipment.
Intrusive cleaning is generally used for multi-cavity parts. This method has higher requirements for the cleaning ability of the cleaning agent and the ability to emulsify the oil, but the defoaming performance is not high. However, a cleaning agent having a strong emulsified oil has a disadvantage, and the cleaning ability is gradually lowered, so that the service life is short.
When cleaning the parts in the automobile gearbox, the through-type spray cleaning method is mostly used, and the washing and drying are also carried out after the cleaning. Spray cleaning equipment is generally equipped with an oil skimmer, which is suitable for using a cleaning agent with strong resistance to miscellaneous oil, and also has the ability to defoam. Cleaning agents have their own optimal operating temperature range, and their cleaning ability increases with increasing temperature, but once this range is exceeded, the cleaning ability will decrease. So it is also important to have a proper cleaning temperature.
High-pressure spray cleaning is often used to remove dirt on the surface of the parts while removing burrs on the metal surface. The parts are often positioned and sprayed at a fixed point. The cleaning agent is required to have good resistance to foam under high pressure.
(3) Requirements for cleaning agents in subsequent processing steps
Under certain process conditions, the impact of subsequent processing steps must also be considered when selecting a cleaning agent. For example, in the production of gearbox gear parts, there are two steps in the machining process that require grinding and shot peening. After the two processes are completed, the gears need to be spray cleaned. Then, in the middle cleaning between grinding and shot peening, it is necessary to consider whether the cleaning agent used will affect the subsequent shot blasting process, for example, whether it will leave on the surface of the part after drying. Sticky detergent residue or cover film, etc. These will destroy the processing quality of the shot peening process, resulting in defects in the product.